My business is located in Michigan, but I’m considering hiring remote employees who live in other states. How will this impact my payroll taxes?
You’ll need to withhold federal payroll taxes just as you would for your in-state employees. But you’ll also need to withhold state and possibly local payroll taxes in the state where your remote worker lives.
This will require you to register your business with that state’s revenue department so you can follow their filing schedule and pay the tax on time. You’ll also need to register your company with that state’s unemployment department to pay unemployment tax.
It can get even more complicated. Now your company may also be subject to that state’s sales tax laws. Each state has different rules for when you meet the minimum requirements of doing business there. And having an employee can be the trigger.
Similarly, having an employee in another state can trigger corporate income tax for your company.
Client Profile is based on a hypothetical situation. The solutions we discuss may or may not be appropriate for you.
Whether you’re hiring your first employee or already have a few, understanding payroll taxes is a must.
FICA & FUTA
FICA stands for Federal Insurance Contributions Act and it funds the Social Security and Medicare programs. It’s funded equally by the employer and employee. For 2021, each pays Social Security tax of 6.2% on the first $142,800 of an employee’s wages and 1.45% on all wages. Each year, the wage base (the maximum earnings subject to Social Security tax) is adjusted for inflation. Self-employed taxpayers will pay both the employer and employee portion but they’ll receive a deduction on their tax return for the employer portion.
Federal unemployment tax (FUTA) is paid by the employer and provides benefits to workers who become unemployed through no fault of their own. In 2021, the tax rate is 6% on the first $7,000 of each employee’s salary. Credits for paying state unemployment tax on time are available and can reduce this rate significantly.
Some employees will have to pay the Additional Medicare tax depending on their tax filing status and their taxable income. Employers need to withhold this tax from pay checks for employees who earn more than $200,000 a year. The tax rate for 2021 is 0.9% of the excess wages.
Federal income tax (FIT) is taken out of an employee’s pay to cover their annual tax liability. How much taken out is based on information from the employee’s Form W-4, which they should fill out when they start a new job or anytime their circumstances change that might impact how much tax they owe.
FILE & PAY
The most common payment frequencies are monthly or semi-weekly. However, quarterly or annual payments are allowed for FUTA.
Quarterly payroll tax returns are needed for FICA, FIT, and the Additional Medicare tax. FUTA returns will be filed quarterly or annually, depending on your payment frequency.
IN A STATE
Payroll taxes extend beyond the federal level to the state level. Depending on your state, you may have to withhold state income tax from employees’ paychecks. And all states have an unemployment tax that employers pay. Some cities have payroll taxes too.
If your small business is planning for payroll next year, be aware that the “Social Security wage base” is increasing.
The Social Security Administration recently announced that the maximum earnings subject to Social Security tax will increase from $137,700 in 2020 to $142,800 in 2021.
For 2021, the FICA tax rate for both employers and employees is 7.65% (6.2% for Social Security and 1.45% for Medicare).
For 2021, the Social Security tax rate is 6.2% each for the employer and employee (12.4% total) on the first $142,800 of employee wages. The tax rate for Medicare is 1.45% each for the employee and employer (2.9% total). There’s no wage base limit for Medicare tax so all covered wages are subject to Medicare tax.
In addition to withholding Medicare tax at 1.45%, an employer must withhold a 0.9% additional Medicare tax from wages paid to an employee in excess of $200,000 in a calendar year.
Employees working more than one job
You may have employees who work for your business and who also have a second job. They may ask if you can stop withholding Social Security taxes at a certain point in the year because they’ve already reached the Social Security wage base amount. Unfortunately, you generally can’t stop the withholding, but the employees will get a credit on their tax returns for any excess withheld.
If your business has older employees, they may have to deal with the “retirement earnings test.” It remains in effect for individuals below normal retirement age (age 65 to 67 depending on the year of birth) who continue to work while collecting Social Security benefits. For affected individuals, $1 in benefits will be withheld for every $2 in earnings above $18,960 in 2021 (up from $18,240 in 2020).
For working individuals collecting benefits who reach normal retirement age in 2021, $1 in benefits will be withheld for every $3 in earnings above $46,920 (up from $48,600 in 2020), until the month that the individual reaches normal retirement age. After that month, there’s no limit on earnings.
Contact us if you have questions. We can assist you with the details of payroll taxes and keep you in compliance with payroll laws and regulations.
I own a small company and want to reward my employees during the holidays. What can I do for them without triggering a tax issue?
All forms of compensation are subject to income tax unless specifically exempted. So items like gift cards, savings bonds, and gift certificates are all reportable as taxable income on the employee’s W-2. You’ll also need to do the appropriate withholding and pay payroll taxes on this money.
Follow the Rules To completely avoid triggering any tax issues for your employees don’t gift cash and cash equivalents. Understand the de minimis rules which apply to gifts that are minor, of low value, infrequent, and administratively impracticable to track and report. Benefits that meet these requirements are generally not reportable as income.
The IRS does not identify any specific value as qualifying for de minimis treatment. Instead, the IRS looks at the overall nature of the gift, bonus, prize, or perk. Holiday gifts are generally okay if the value is so low that accounting for it is unreasonable or impracticable.
Bottom Line You can probably provide a reasonable holiday dinner, lunch or party for your employees without reporting it as income – as long as it’s not a common or recurring event. The same goes for holiday gifts like flowers and gift baskets of modest value.
The CARES Act’s new Employee Retention Credit is an alternative to receiving a loan through the Paycheck Protection Program (PPP). Businesses may choose the credit or PPP loan, if available. Unlike the PPP, the tax credit does not have a limit on the size of your business, making it an option for larger companies that don’t qualify for the PPP.
The Employee Retention Credit helps businesses to retain employees during the current economic crisis. The credit equals 50% of qualified wages and qualified allocable health care expenses paid to staff members between March 12, 2020 and December 31, 2020. The maximum credit per employee is $5,000 per quarter during that period.
In order to be eligible for this credit, however, the IRS states you must meet one of two qualifying factors. The first is if your operations have been suspended in any way because of the government’s restrictions on commerce, travel, or group meetings due to COVID-19. The other eligibility factor is if you experience a “significant decline” in gross receipts for the quarter. The IRS defines a significant decline as gross receipts totaling less than 50% than what they were in the same quarter for 2019. Once gross receipts reach 80% of the previous year’s quarterly numbers eligibility for any credit ends.
The employer is not required to pay qualified wages if they qualify for the program, and can choose to opt out of claiming the Employee Retention Credit.
One of the most laborious tasks for small businesses is managing payroll. But it’s critical that you not only withhold the right amount of taxes from employees’ paychecks but also that you pay them over to the federal government on time.
If you willfully fail to do so, you could personally be hit with the Trust Fund Recovery Penalty, also known as the 100% penalty. The penalty applies to the Social Security and income taxes required to be withheld by a business from its employees’ wages. Since the taxes are considered property of the government, the employer holds them in “trust” on the government’s behalf until they’re paid over.
The reason the penalty is sometimes called the “100% penalty” is because the person liable for the taxes (called the “responsible person”) can be personally penalized 100% of the taxes due. Accordingly, the amounts the IRS seeks when the penalty is applied are usually substantial, and the IRS is aggressive in enforcing it.
The penalty can be imposed on any person “responsible” for the collection and payment of the taxes. This has been broadly defined to include a corporation’s officers, directors, and shareholders under a duty to collect and pay the tax, as well as a partnership’s partners or any employee of the business under such a duty. Even voluntary board members of tax-exempt organizations, who are generally exempt from responsibility, can be subject to this penalty under certain circumstances. Responsibility has even been extended in some cases to professional advisors.
According to the IRS, being a responsible person is a matter of status, duty and authority. Anyone with the power to see that the taxes are paid may be responsible. There is often more than one responsible person in a business, but each is at risk for the entire penalty. Although taxpayers held liable may sue other responsible persons for their contributions, this is an action they must take entirely on their own after they pay the penalty. It isn’t part of the IRS collection process.
The net can be broadly cast. You may not be directly involved with the withholding process in your business. But let’s say you learn of a failure to pay over withheld taxes and you have the power to have them paid. Instead, you make payments to creditors and others. You have now become a responsible person.
How the IRS defines “willfulness”
For actions to be willful, they don’t have to include an overt intent to evade taxes. Simply bowing to business pressures and paying bills or obtaining supplies instead of paying over withheld taxes due to the government is willful behavior for these purposes. And just because you delegate responsibilities to someone else doesn’t necessarily mean you’re off the hook.
In addition, the corporate veil won’t shield corporate owners from the 100% penalty. The liability protections that owners of corporations — and limited liability companies — typically have don’t apply to payroll tax debts.
If the IRS assesses the penalty, it can file a lien or take levy or seizure action against the personal assets of a responsible person.
Avoiding the penalty
You should never allow any failure to withhold taxes from employees, and no “borrowing” from withheld amounts should ever be allowed in your business — regardless of the circumstances. All funds withheld must be paid over on time.
If you aren’t already using a payroll service, consider hiring one. This can relieve you of the burden of withholding and paying the proper amounts, as well as handling the recordkeeping. Contact us for more information.
If federal income tax and employment taxes (including Social Security) are withheld from employees’ paychecks and not handed over to the IRS, a harsh penalty can be imposed. To make matters worse, the penalty can be assessed personally against a “responsible individual.”
If a business makes payroll tax payments late, there are escalating penalties. And if an employer fails to make them, the IRS will crack down hard. With the “Trust Fund Recovery Penalty,” also known as the “100% Penalty,” the IRS can assess the entire unpaid amount against a responsible person who willfully fails to comply with the law.
Some business owners and executives facing a cash flow crunch may be tempted to dip into the payroll taxes withheld from employees. They may think, “I’ll send the money in later when it comes in from another source.” Bad idea!
No corporate protection
The corporate veil won’t shield corporate officers in these cases. Unlike some other liability protections that a corporation or limited liability company may have, business owners and executives can’t escape personal liability for payroll tax debts.
Once the IRS asserts the penalty, it can file a lien or take levy or seizure action against a responsible individual’s personal assets.
The penalty can be assessed against a shareholder, owner, director, officer, or employee. In some cases, it can be assessed against a third party. The IRS can also go after more than one person. To be liable, an individual or party must:
Be responsible for collecting, accounting for, and paying over withheld federal taxes, and
Willfully fail to pay over those taxes. That means intentionally, deliberately, voluntarily and knowingly disregarding the requirements of the law.
The easiest way out of a delinquent payroll tax mess is to avoid getting into one in the first place. If you’re involved in a small or medium-size business, make sure the federal taxes that have been withheld from employees’ paychecks are paid over to the government on time. Don’t ever allow “borrowing” from withheld amounts.
Consider hiring an outside service to handle payroll duties. A good payroll service provider relieves you of the burden of paying employees, making the deductions, taking care of the tax payments and handling recordkeeping. Contact us for more information.
Many employers prefer to classify workers as independent contractors to lower costs, even if it means having less control over a worker’s day-to-day activities. But the government is on the lookout for businesses that classify workers as independent contractors simply to reduce taxes or avoid their employee benefit obligations.
Why it matters
When your business classifies a worker as an employee, you generally must withhold federal income tax and the employee’s share of Social Security and Medicare taxes from his or her wages. Your business must then pay the employer’s share of these taxes, pay federal unemployment tax, file federal payroll tax returns and follow other burdensome IRS and U.S. Department of Labor rules.
You may also have to pay state and local unemployment and workers’ compensation taxes and comply with more rules. Dealing with all this can cost a bundle each year.
On the other hand, with independent contractor status, you don’t have to worry about employment tax issues. You also don’t have to provide fringe benefits like health insurance, retirement plans and paid vacations. If you pay $600 or more to an independent contractor during the year, you must file a Form 1099-MISC with the IRS and send a copy to the worker to report what you paid. That’s basically the extent of your bureaucratic responsibilities.
But if you incorrectly treat a worker as an independent contractor — and the IRS decides the worker is actually an employee — your business could be assessed unpaid payroll taxes plus interest and penalties. You also could be liable for employee benefits that should have been provided but weren’t, including penalties under federal laws.
Filing an IRS form
To find out if a worker is an employee or an independent contractor, you can file optional IRS Form SS-8, “Determination of Worker Status for Purposes of Federal Employment Taxes and Income Tax Withholding.” Then, the IRS will let you know how to classify a worker. However, be aware that the IRS has a history of classifying workers as employees rather than independent contractors.
Businesses should consult with us before filing Form SS-8 because it may alert the IRS that your business has worker classification issues — and inadvertently trigger an employment tax audit.
It can be better to simply treat independent contractors so the relationships comply with the tax rules. This generally includes not controlling how the workers perform their duties, ensuring that you’re not the workers’ only customer, providing annual Forms 1099 and, basically, not treating the workers like employees.
Workers can also ask for a determination
Workers who want an official determination of their status can also file Form SS-8. Disgruntled independent contractors may do so because they feel entitled to employee benefits and want to eliminate self-employment tax liabilities.
If a worker files Form SS-8, the IRS will send a letter to the business. It identifies the worker and includes a blank Form SS-8. The business is asked to complete and return the form to the IRS, which will render a classification decision.
Defending your position
If your business properly handles independent contractors, don’t panic if a worker files a Form SS-8. Contact us before replying to the IRS. With a proper response, you may be able to continue to classify the worker as a contractor. We also can assist you in setting up independent contractor relationships that stand up to IRS scrutiny.
Here are some of the key tax-related deadlines that apply to businesses and other employers during the second quarter of 2019. Keep in mind that this list isn’t all-inclusive, so there may be additional deadlines that apply to you. Contact us to ensure you’re meeting all applicable deadlines and to learn more about the filing requirements.
File with the IRS if you’re an employer that will electronically file 2018 Form 1097, Form 1098, Form 1099 (other than those with an earlier deadline) and/or Form W-2G.
If your employees receive tips and you file electronically, file Form 8027.
If you’re an Applicable Large Employer and filing electronically, file Forms 1094-C and 1095-C with the IRS. For all other providers of minimum essential coverage filing electronically, file Forms 1094-B and 1095-B with the IRS.
If you’re a calendar-year corporation, file a 2018 income tax return (Form 1120) or file for an automatic six-month extension (Form 7004) and pay any tax due.
Corporations pay the first installment of 2019 estimated income taxes.
Employers report income tax withholding and FICA taxes for the first quarter of 2019 (Form 941) and pay any tax due.
Employers report income tax withholding and FICA taxes for the first quarter of 2019 (Form 941), if you deposited on time and fully paid all of the associated taxes due.
Corporations pay the second installment of 2019 estimated income taxes.
This year, the optional standard mileage rate used to calculate the deductible costs of operating an automobile for business increased by 3.5 cents, to the highest level since 2008. As a result, you might be able to claim a larger deduction for vehicle-related expense for 2019 than you can for 2018.
Actual costs vs. mileage rate
Businesses can generally deduct the actual expenses attributable to business use of vehicles. This includes gas, oil, tires, insurance, repairs, licenses and vehicle registration fees. In addition, you can claim a depreciation allowance for the vehicle. However, in many cases depreciation write-offs on vehicles are subject to certain limits that don’t apply to other types of business assets.
The mileage rate comes into play when taxpayers don’t want to keep track of actual vehicle-related expenses. With this approach, you don’t have to account for all your actual expenses, although you still must record certain information, such as the mileage for each business trip, the date and the destination.
The mileage rate approach also is popular with businesses that reimburse employees for business use of their personal automobiles. Such reimbursements can help attract and retain employees who’re expected to drive their personal vehicle extensively for business purposes. Why? Under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, employees can no longer deduct unreimbursed employee business expenses, such as business mileage, on their individual income tax returns.
But be aware that you must comply with various rules. If you don’t, you risk having the reimbursements considered taxable wages to the employees.
The 2019 rate
Beginning on January 1, 2019, the standard mileage rate for the business use of a car (van, pickup or panel truck) is 58 cents per mile. For 2018, the rate was 54.5 cents per mile.
The business cents-per-mile rate is adjusted annually. It is based on an annual study commissioned by the IRS about the fixed and variable costs of operating a vehicle, such as gas, maintenance, repair and depreciation. Occasionally, if there is a substantial change in average gas prices, the IRS will change the mileage rate midyear.
There are certain situations where you can’t use the cents-per-mile rate. It depends in part on how you’ve claimed deductions for the same vehicle in the past or, if the vehicle is new to your business this year, whether you want to take advantage of certain first-year depreciation breaks on it.
As you can see, there are many variables to consider in determining whether to use the mileage rate to deduct vehicle expenses. Contact us if you have questions about tracking and claiming such expenses in 2019 — or claiming them on your 2018 income tax return.